History Sharkliveroil l What is squalene? l The Role of Squalene in Health l Dr. Carl A. Luer
Dr. William Lane interview by dr. Passwater l Dr. William Lane l Dr. Bikul Das
What is Squalene?
Squalene. The miraculous essential omega 2 oil. Secrets from the sea
Lukas T.S. Tjan
Scientists have discovered that in the very beginning of life on Earth, about 3,5 billion years ago, microbes and later in the Precambrian period membrane cells of organisms were full of squalene. At that time the substance was apparently essential for their survival in a hostile environment with a lack of oxygen.
Until recently no one knew that this natural chemical is also found in small amounts in the human body. Newborn babies show the highest content of squalene in their blood.
With an age between 30 and 40 the stock of squalene in our body decreases strongly. It is not surprising that in this stage of life record performances of sportsmen take place in a lesser degree.
The deep sea shark, a prehistoric animal, dispose of an enormous concentration of squalene in his liver. Through the ages fishermen all over the world were acquainted with the beneficial and wonderworking effects of this liver oil of a number of deep-sea sharks living beneath 1000 m.
The local people on the Japanese peninsula of Izu called the substance already for centuries "Samedawa" or a cure-all. They used it for a wide range of diseases from constipation to cancer. In ancient China the miraculous effects of shark liver oil are recorded for posterity in the pharmaceutical book of "Honzukomuko".
It is just two decennia ago that scientist discovered a larger amount of squalene in olive and palm oil. Research has shown that people with an increased consumption of these two natural food oils show a significant decreased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Two leading scientist in this field, Theresa J. Smith en Harold L Newmark suggest that this protective effect is due to the component of squalene. Olive and palm oil hold a concentration of a about 0,5% of this substance.
In countries around the Mediterranean sea an high squalene consumption (200-400 mg per day= 2 capsules) through the intensive use of olive oil was observed.
For lovers of olive oil and olives this can amount up to one gram per day per person. Roughly the same amount applies to the average consumer of palm oil in Asia.
It is generally assumed that squalene was an essential substance in the very beginning of life. After millions of years of evolutionary development the liver of the deep sea shark forms the richest source of natural squalene. Shark liver oil consists of about 60-85 % of this organic matter. Olive oil has a squalene concentration of only 0,4 –0,8 %. During the production process from olive oil squalene can easily be distilled to a concentration of about 99%.
Since time immemorial Japan uses seafood as a staple diet. It’s not surprising then that in 1906 a Japanese chemist Dr. Mitsumaro Tsjujimoto, specialised in oils and fats, published his scientific research about the secrets of shark liver oil. He discovered that a specific substance in the oil was responsible for the healing properties. He called it squalene because the people of Japan and neighboured islands extract the oil only from sharks livers of the Squalidae family. According to fishery authorities this order represents the second largest order and includes 7 families and about 113 species and their most distinguishing feature is the missing anal fin. Most species also have a spine in front of the first dorsal fin. The majority are deep water species, and some have luminescent organs. Some species can reach a length for instance the Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus, of 7m.
6 kinds are used for the production of shark liver oil: the Aizame shark or Dog Shark, the nurse shark, de Kasumizame or Fog shark, the Gulper Shark, the Thompson’s Shark or bird beak shark and the Cat Shark. The squalidae sharks live 500 to 1000 m below sea level. They have no fish maw but carry a conspicuous big liver. This organ makes up 25 % of their body weight and is of vital importance for their existence in greater depth. Because of a unique metabolism these sharks can survive in great depth, where is lack on oxygen. Unlike whales, which are a viviparous and an often endangered species, most of the squalidae sharks show an successful ovoviviparous or in some cases also an oviparous reproduction, with up to twelve eggs at a time. The squalidae family feed mainly on plankton, algae en small fishes and reach a maximum body length of 1,5 m.
The Gulper Shark
Through research Dr. Carl Luer, a biochemist in Florida, found that sharks do not suffer or hardly ever suffer from cancer. Even after they were exposed to high concentrations of carcinogen substances their immune system saved them from disorder or illness. At the same time scientists discovered that their wounds heal two times faster as wounds of humans do.
The first sharks lived about 400 million years ago and are about 130 million years older than the oldest dinosaur species from the Triassic period. The perfectly developed shark body survived millions of years of evolutionary influences without any major changes while the dinosaurs vanished. Aqua dynamic built, looking nearly the same as their prehistoric ancestors, the senses, the mating behaviour and the resistance against diseases of these animals are until today highly effective and need therefore no further adaptation. Some of the species can reach the age of hundred years or more.
Olive oil or Squalene
Not only animals like sharks have a certain quantity of squalene in their body, also plants like olives and the fruit of the oil palm contain this substance, though in a lesser degree. The olive oil, received from the first compression, holds about 400-450 mg/100g of squalene, while refined oil contain about 25% less. In some cases premium quality olive oil show a higher concentration of up to 700 mg /100g. According to the same research the average squalene consumption of adults in western countries including the USA run up to 30 mg per day.
In Mediterranean countries frequent and well-balanced use of premium quality olive oil provides a daily dosage of up to 400 mg of squalene. According to the researchers Gylling and Miettinen in some special cases ‘olive lovers’ consume through their daily diet more than 1g (2 capsules) squalene.
The olive tree (Olea Europaea) has its origin in countries round the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Both the Old and the New Testament give the olive tree, the olive branch and olive fruits a role of importance. The fruits were not only used for food and for the production of olive oil, it was also applied to balm and to salve as well as for perfume and lamp oil.
Because the fruits and the oil are easy to conserve and contain many nutritious substances an olive tree was a very precious possession. Due to trade and the migration of peoples the plant spread out along the shores of the Mediterranean sea.
Squalene and cancer
Epidemiological studies on nutrition indicate a strong protective effect of olive oil against different forms of cancer. The health statistics of Greece, a country with a high consumption of olive oil, has in comparison with the USA 65% less cases of Breast cancer. Partial scientific examination of the Greece population show that the risk to develop breast cancer drop by 25 % through a twice a day consumption of olive oil. Another study in Spain give proof of a significant reduced risk of breast cancer by women in connection with a lavish use of olive oil in their daily nutrition. In Italy, where olive oil make up 80 % of the consumed edible oils, recent scientific research prove the same: Women with the highest consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), as occurring in olive oil, in their daily nourishment, show the same significant decline of breast cancer risk. Leading scientists on this field, Theresa J. Smith and Harold L. Newmark, suggest that this protecting effect can be related to the high concentration (0,2-0,7%) of squalene in olive oil (14,18). This reasonable assumption is supported by the results of a substantial number of animal experiments. The majority of the research has studied the effect of systematically or local administered squalene on chemically
Induced cancers of the skin, the colon and the lungs. The consequential discovery of the ‘Peroxisoom Proliferator-Activated-Receptor’ and the herewith closely connected PPAR-technology caused at the same time a new view on cancer and opened new perspectives concerning prevention and treatment. (Visit the Dutch websitewww.ppar.nl)
Components of shark liver oil
Except squalene, the liver oil of the deep see shark contains vitamin A, D3 and E, Jodium and alcohol, as well as alcoxyglycerols and other immunity enhancing nutritional substances. As it turns out now the synergetic effect of squalene together with the other components improve not only the sharks immunity against cancer and other diseases, but supports the animal with an increased endurance.
Natural chemical processes
In 1936 Dr. Paul Carer (1889-1971), a world-famous Swiss professor in chemistry and lecturer at the University of Zurich, author of several scientific books on pharmacy, succeeded
in the determination of the chemical formula and structure of Squalene. Squalene from shark liver oil is named in Latin ‘squalene exogene oleum’. The medical name is Spinacene or Supraene. The biochemical structure of squalene is C30 H50 (C30:6n-omega2) all trans isoprenoid, what means C30 polyprenyl compound hold 6 prenyl (better known as isoprenoid or isoprene). Because of a double bond structure of six CH3 compounds the isoprenoid has a strong antioxidative effect like a natural antibiotic. Other isoprenoids are Beta carotene, lycopene, vitamin A, vitamin E and Coenzyme Q10. Not long ago the knowledge spread that squalene is one of our body’s own essential substances, which occurs in small quantities in the skin and blood. It is an a polar polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA or long-chain polyenes) that plays an important role in an in-between (intermediate) phase of our body’s cholesterol synthesis. It is not only essential for a healthy skin, according to a new scientific thesis of PPAR technology it differentiates also cancer cells to fat cells (adipocyte) finally followed by apoptosis. (For more information please visit the website www.ppar.nl)
Squalene is in fact a metabolite and precursor of the cholesterol synthesis. In our body Squalene can be converted into useful HDL-cholesterol, whereby the level of good cholesterol increase and the level bad LDL-cholesterol become reduced.
Health as well as dysbalance of our body has its origin on the cellular level. A wide range of squalene’s core properties influence this level. Therefore it find a wide application:
Anti-oxidation - powerful Anti-oxidant Oxygen generator - vast recuperation - Immune stimulator - good immune response
Fat regulator/energy modulator - natural vitality
Science Nutritions' natural pure squalene does not smell or taste like fish as we expect from cod-liver oil. Our squalene’s odour is neutral and burps, as seldom as they occur, leave no fishy taste. Because of a lack of fine distillery methods some other brands of shark liver oil still have the typical taste and smell of cod-liver oil.
Squalene an omega 2 fatty acid has unlike omega 3 fish oils more complete and effective chemic groups.
Squalene - A strong natural anti-oxidant
The biochemical structure of squalene is C30 H50 (C30: 6n-omega 2) all trans isoprenoid, that means a C30 polyprenyl compound hold 6 prenyl (better known as isoprenoid or isoprene).
Because of a double bound structure this isoprenoid has the function of a strong anti-oxidant and a natural antibiotic. The molecular weight of squalene is heavier than that of EPA or DHA, through which all active bonding positions of the receptor can be maximal belayed.
As consequence squalene permeates not only deeper in cells but also faster and more effective.
Squalene- A unique oxygen generator
The unsaturated hydrocarbons of squalene (C30 H50) bind hydrogen ions from water and saturate with that squalene (C30 H62). This chemical process release 3 unbound oxygen molecules (O2):
C30H50 (squalene) + 6 H20 (water) > C3) H62 + 3 O2 (oxygen).
During this reaction blood is getting purified, polluted and finally purified again. The quality of the blood and the blood vessels determines the result.
Dr. Nideo Noguchi and many other specialists hold the opinion that nearly all human diseases are caused by a deficiency of oxygen in blood and cells. Squalene has shown efficiency in improving the quantity and quality of the oxygen saturation in cells, leading in a impressive number of cases to an enhanced vitality. As an omega 2 fatty acid squalene has a redox function which releases oxygen from water, resulting in this above mentioned increased oxygen level in the cells. Squalene is in fact an oxygen generator which provides our organism with a sufficient oxygen level and distributes it into the remotest cells of our body. Squalene will mainly lay up in our skin and the adipose tissue, the natural stock of this substance. The increased oxygen level stimulates also the natural metabolism. There is strong empiric evidence that the combination of squalene with regular medication produces good and sometimes even better results in the recovery process. In comparison to adults the body of babies and pre-schoolers show the highest levels of squalene. This fact could explain the energetic behaviour and the vivid eyes of young and healthy children.
Starting with an age of 30 the squalene level in our organism drops significantly. Therefore it is not surprising that round an age of 30 the sport performances of most humans decline. Squalene can intercept this lack of energy and improve the power output.
Powerful immune stimulator
An important substance in shark liver oil are the alkoxyglycerols (AKG’s), also known as glycerol ether lipids, G-E’s), which are stimulating the immune system and protect us against uncontrolled and malignant cell growth. Swedish biochemist Sven Brohult discovered that AKG’s support the production of white corpuscles, which are responsible for an optimal function of our immune system. Alkoxyglycerols are also present in organs being essential for our immune defence like spleen, lymph nodes as well as in bone marrow and mother’s milk. Because of an hostile environment a baby need to strengthen his immune system in no time. The main substance of mother’s milk, alkoxyglycerol, stimulates and boost this process. Shark liver oil contain much more of this substance than other fish oils.
Sustainable properties (strong points) of Squalene
Shark liver oil has proofed to work out sustainable and effectively and can be seen as nutrition supplement with the following properties and applications:
Anti-oxidant (intercepting free radicals)
Anti-biotic (anti bacterial, anti-infectious)
Anti-coagulant ( reducing thrombocyte aggregation, disintegrate blood clots)
Anti-histaminic (suppressing histamine)
Anti-phlogiston (combat inflammation)
Anti-allergic (preventing allergic reactions)
Anti-carcinogen (anti-cancer through differentiation of cancer cells to adipocyt [fat cell] apoptosis [cell death] and necrosis [cell decomposition])
Digestive (stimulating digestion)
Immune stimulant (improving resistance, supporting development and activity of phagocytes and lymphocytes)
Effects and applications
re-establishes the auto-immune system
supports internal and external healing of tissue damage
supports growth of blood cells
works as strong anti-oxidant and scavenger of free radicals
leads to extra natural energy, vitality and top condition
protects and cleans cells and tissues and keep them healthy
provides a good prostate function
helps to recover from stiff and painful muscles
provides elastic and healthy joints
protects the body during aging
strengthens the immune system and support the natural immune defence
provide a healthy skin: more elastic, less wrinkles
improved control of allergies, eczema and psoriasis
reduces formation of scar tissues
reduces harmful LDL-cholesterol and the cholesterol level in the blood
improves the body’s energy by providing the blood cells with oxygen
works as an effective antibiotic
supports the recovery of asthma- and CNSLD-patients (chronic non-specific lung disease)
protects against common cold and influenza
supports control of candida, candidiasis, mycosis, and athlete’s foot disease
reduces gastric disorder and indigestion
improves the blood circulation
helps to control chronic illnesses like asthma, diabetes, rheumatism and arthritis
releases from pain
helps to control varicose veins and decalcification
Improves the memory and the concentration
helps to control ADHD, hyperactivity and dyslexia
helps to control the growth of several forms of cancer through the benefit of PPAR- technology based on suppletion of LCP
helps to excrete several toxins in humans as well as animals
Healthy and beautiful skin, sharp eye-sight and untroubled cerebration
Several studies indicate that consumption of squalene provides us also with other advantageous effects. Scientists as Kohno and others found, that squalene is a powerful scavenger of reactive singlet oxygen in the surface of human skin. Besides this effect squalene protects healthy and smooth skin against wrinkles by feeding and guarding important processes in the skin cells. The unsaturated fatty acids of squalene plays also an crucial role in the moisture regulation of the skin. About 10 percent of our skin surface (skin lipids) is made of squalene. Squalene safeguards also a healthy fat metabolism and the oxygen transport to and from our skin. Through the stimulation of a healthy digestion it provides us also with a healthy intestinal flora with a natural and regular bowel.
The benefits for our skin one by one
influences the skin positively through a healthy digestion and an optimal intestinal flora
intercepts through anti-oxidants free radicals in the skin
stimulates a better blood circulation and nourishment of the skin
brings the skin layers in balance and revitalise this important organ
equalizes and regulates the metabolism from and to the skin
improve the moisture balance and the elasticity of the skin
creates a visible improvement of the skin structure
protects partially against sun rays including uv-rays.
This is one of the many reasons why this substance is intensively used in the cosmetic industry.
Squalene is also crucial for the well-being of our eyes especially for the photosensitive cells of the retina. Scientists found out that squalene stimulates the development and maturation of the brain structure resulting in an improvement of the memory and the ability of concentration. That’s only logical, as the human brain consists for more than 80 percent of fatty acids.
Squalene Omega 2 products
High quality squalene capsules are difficult to obtain on the European market. To improve the squalene supply Fahrenheit Farma will introduce mid 2004 as a world premiere squalene distilled from pure premium olive oil.
Why to take Squalene?
1. Squalene can help enhance the quality of life, it taken continuously.
2. Squalene is very useful for patients with Heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and hepatitis.
3. Squalene can help blood cholesterol levels of people who eat a lot of fatty foods.
4. Squalene is highly recommended for people who suffer from gastritis.
5. Squalene can be taken as a general health tonic for hard working people.
6. Squalene helps the skin get the nutrients it needs, and gives it a more beautiful complexion.
Sources and references Squalene and haaienleverolie
1. Berger S.M.: 'Forever Young', 1ste ed., 1989.
2. Tsjujimoto M., Toyam Y., 1992: ' Unsaponifiable Constituents (higher alcohol) of the liver oil of the sharks and rays'. Chem Umschau 29: 27 - 29, 43 - 45
3. Dr. Conrado O. Venzon, 'The Precious Oil of the Deep-Sea Shark', Worldwide Publ.Services Quezon City, Philippines.
4. 'The Healer Shark', Neil Solomons MD.Ph.D. and Richard Passwater, Ph.D. 1998
5. Brohult, Astrid, 1963: 'Alkylglycerols and their use in Radiation Treatment', Acta. Radiol. Suppl. 223: 7 - 99, Stockholm.
6. Dr. William Lane Comac, 'Sharks don't Get Cancer', 1992.
7. ' Fish Oil May Ease Arthritis Pain'. Med. World News July 14, 1986, p. 9.
8 Glausinz: 'The Secret Healing Power of Sharks', The Medicine Discoverer Magazine, January 1994.
9. Prof. dr. J. de Vries, Hart- en vaatziekten vormen samen met kanker de belangrijkste doodsoorzaak in de westerse wereld. Studies wijzen uit dat visolie unieke vetzuren bevat die preventief werken. Waar blijven de aanbevelingen van volksgezondheid? Natuur en techniek 65, 12 1997
10. Kromhout, Daan, Bosschieter, Edward B. and Coulander, Cor de Lezenne, 1985: 'The Inverse relationship Between Fish Oil Consumption and 20-Year old Mortality from Coronary Health Diseases'.
11. Takashi Yokota M.D., 'The Miracle of Squalene (Cures Cancer & Modern Diseases)'
The Medicine Discoverer, January 1994, 'The Secret Healing Power of Sharks'.
13. Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L et al. Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int.J Cancer 1994;58:
14. Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1995;87:110-6.
15. Landa MC, Frago N, Tres A. Diet and the risk of breast cancer in Spain. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1994;3:313-20.
16. Franceschi S, Favero A, Decarli A et al. Intake of macronutrients and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 1996;347:1351-6.
17. La Vecchia C, Negri E. Fats in seasoning and the relationship to pancreatic cancer. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1997;6:370-3.
18. Porter, Ph.D. Squalene Monooxygenase, University of Kentucky
19. Newmark HL. Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk: a review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997
20. Rao CV, Newmark HL, Reddy BS. Chemopreventive effect of squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1998;19:287-290
21. Nakagawa M, Yamaguchi T, Fukawa H, et al. Potentiation by squalene of the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents against culture mammalian cells and murine tumor. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985;76:315-320.
22. Asnis DS, Saltzman HP, Melchert A. Shark oil pneumonia. An overlooked entity. Chest 1993;103:976-977.
23. Yamaguchi T, Nakagawa M, Hidaka K et al. Potentiation by squaleen of antitumor effect of 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-nitros ourea in a murine tumor system. Jpn.J Cancer Res. 1985;76:1021-6.
24. Smith TJ, Yang GY, Seril DN, Liao J, Kim S. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis by dietary olive oil and squaleen. Carcinogenesis 1998;19:703-6.
25. Smith, T. J., Kim, S., Lee, M. J., Yang, G. Y., Newmark, H. L., and Yang, C. S. Inhibition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NKK)-induced lung tumorigenesis and DNA oxidation by dietary squaleen. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research 40, 262. 1999. Ref Type: Journal (Full)
26. Dr. Bikul Das. The Science behind Squalene. The Human Antioxidant. 2000. Toronto Canada
27. Kelly GS. Squaleen and its potential clinical uses. Altern.Med Rev. 1999;4:29-36.
28. Fliesler SJ, Keller RK. Isoprenoid metabolism in the vertebrate retina. Int.J Biochem.Cell Biol. 1997;29:877-94.
29. Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Metabolic variables of cholesterol during squaleen feeding in humans: comparison with cholestyramine treatment. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:1637-43.
30. Kohno Y, Egawa Y, Itoh S, Nagaoka S, Takahashi M, Mukai K. Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squaleen in n-butanol. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1995;1256:52-6.
31. Miettinen TA, Vanhanen H. Serum concentration and metabolism of cholesterol during rapeseed oil and squaleen feeding. Am J Clin.Nutr. 1994;59:356-63.
32. Chan P, Tomlinson B, Lee CB, Lee YS. Effectiveness and safety of low-dose pravastatin and squaleen, alone and in combination, in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Clin.Pharmacol. 1996;36:422-7.
33. Smith TJ. Squaleen: Potential chemopreventive agent by squalene. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2000;9:1841-8.
34. Martin-Moreno JM, Willett WC, Gorgojo L et al. Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int.J Cancer 1994;58:
35. Luer, C. A. et al: (In Vitro Metabolism Of The Proximate Carcinogen Aflatoxin-B 1 By Liver Portions Of The Calf, Nurse Shark And Clearnose Skate) Fed. Froc. 46:2 290, 1987
36. Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S et al. Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1995;87:110-6.
37. Paul Terry, Paul Lichtenstein, Maria Feychting, Anders Ahlbom, Alicja Wolk, Vol 357, June 2, 2001 The Lancet
38. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors a and g. Steven A. Kliewer, Scott Sundseth et al. Nat. Academy of Sciences of the USA 1997
39. Joseph Vamecq, Norbert Latruffe, Vol 354, July 10, 1999 The Lancet
40. E. Mueller, P. Sarraf , …… Bruce M. Spiegelman. Molecular Cell. Vol 1, 465-470, February, 1998
Antioxidator Immuunmodulator Cholesterolregulator Zuurstofgenerator Energiepromotor Huidregulator
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